Procedures and treatments



The natural lens within the eye can become cloudy for various reasons. This is called a cataract and can interfere with the quality of vision.


Cataract surgery can improve quality of vision as well as correcting long- and short-sightedness and astigmatism.


Pterygium is an overgrowth of normal eye tissue onto the cornea and can cause problems with vision as well as discomfort and dry eye symptoms. It is thought to be related to exposure to UV light and is common in hot sunny countries.

If it appears that the pterygium is getting bigger or affecting the vision then surgery is sometimes recommended to remove the pterygium. Modern surgical techniques are very effective and carry a very low risk of recurrence.



Excessive pressure within the eye can cause damage to the optic nerve and result in permanent problems with eyesight.


Treatments include eye drops, laser and surgery.

Ocular surface disease

Also known as 'dry eye', this condition overlaps with blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margins).


This is extremely common and there are many effective treatments available.

Laser capsulotomy

After cataract surgery the membrane bag ('capsule') supporting the lens implant may gradually become cloudy. This usually takes some years after the surgery.

Patients may notice the vision becoming cloudy again or notice glare and dazzle with bright light.


Laser treatment ("YAG laser") to clear the cloudy capsule away from the line of sight is quick and effective and there are very few complications. Once this has been done it is very unusual to need to repeat it.



Blocked glands in the eyelid margin can lead to formation of a cyst or lump in the eyelid known as a chalazion. Some people are more prone to form these because of their skin type.

The lump can be simply a nuisance or may be uncomfortable. A large chalazion may induce astigmatism by pressing on the cornea and causing subtle distortion. 

Treatment of the chalazion is initially with daily application of a hot compress but if this is not effective a short surgical procedure can be arranged. 

On occasions a cyst may become infected (a stye). Often this will resolve with application of a hot compress but in more severe cases the eyelid may become swollen in which case antibiotics may be needed.


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